This is Chapter 14 of the book titled The Destiny of Israel and the Twilight of Christianity: In Quest of the Meaning and Significance of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, by John Saggio.








After the resurrection, ascension, and descension of Jesus, He continues to instruct His disciples, appearing to them over the course of forty days. The number 40 alludes to the life of Moses (three periods of 40 years each), especially Moses’ 40 days and nights on Mount Sinai receiving the two tablets containing the Ten Words and the instructions of Yahweh for His people. Jesus instructs His Apostles in the things concerning the Kingdom of God (Yahweh) during this period of 40 days. The number 40 would also parallel Moses’ rule over Israel during the nation’s 40 years in the wilderness. The new Israel of Yahweh about to be generated would also endure a 40-year journey through a spiritual wilderness ending in her entrance into her Celestial Allotment.

The resurrection of Jesus is followed by His ascension to the Father, at which time He ascends the throne of David, beginning His reign as Warrior-King waging spiritual battle against the enemies of Yahweh and His people, His soon-to-be generated nation. This spiritual warfare would occupy a period covering about 40 years (30 a.d.–70 a.d.). His disciples, His spiritual warrior-soldiers, were to remain in Jerusalem waiting for the promise of the Father, the pouring of His spirit upon His people. They would be “baptized in holy spirit after not many of these days” (Acts 1:5b CV). This would empower them to successfully wage spiritual warfare, being assured final victory, a final conquering of all the enemies of Yahweh and His people (see Rev. 19:11-16).

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel

The Apostles of Jesus, coming together for the last time during Jesus’ 40-day post-resurrection appearances, ask Him,

Lord, art Thou at this time restoring the kingdom to Israel? (Acts 1:6b CV)

His Apostles understand, quite correctly, that Jesus is the New Davidic King and is about to initiate His kingship and His Davidic Kingdom. However, they remain in the dark concerning what the restoration entails. The New Davidic Kingdom of Jesus precedes and prepares for the coming Kingdom of God. The restoration of the Kingdom of Israel would only come after the Warrior-King had conquered all enemies. Thus, the restoration of the kingdom to Israel would be the equivalent of the coming of the Kingdom of God. The Apostles, not yet having received the empowerment and enlightenment of the holy spirit, remain ignorant of this spiritual truth.

Therefore, Jesus acknowledges the validity of their concern for the restoration of the kingdom to Israel. But He informs them,

Not yours is it to know times or seasons which the Father has placed in the appropriate authority of the coming Promise. (Acts 1:7b my translation)

They have already been informed of the significant prophetic events necessary during their watchful faithfulness. They are to continually look and be ready for His Parousia. They have also been informed of the coming of His Davidic Kingdom during which they would reign with Him, judging the twelve tribes of Israel on twelve metaphoric thrones.

As Jews, they had been looking for the restoration of the kingdom to Israel. However, from their point of view, the kingdom of Israel was exemplified by the kingship and kingdom of David over the twelve tribes of Israel. They were ignorant of the distinction between the Kingdom of God over the nation Israel (inaugurated at Sinai) and the greater Kingdom of God over all the nations, the entire human race (inaugurated at the creation of Adam). The New Davidic Kingdom of Jesus the Messiah would be inaugurated first. Its successful conquering of the enemies of Yahweh in Apostate Israel would culminate in the restoration of Israel and the restoration of Yahweh’s rule over all the nations, no distinction remaining between circumcised and uncircumcised.

Jesus had been instructing them in the things concerning the Kingdom of God. These things specifically referred to His New Davidic Kingdom which had already been inaugurated at His ascension to the Father and His ascension to the Davidic throne. This kingdom, for His Apostles and disciples, was about to be initiated by the first royal act of Jesus as the New Davidic King. His spiritual warrior-soldiers, His witnesses, His commissioned messengers, would need to be divinely empowered to accomplish their divine mission.

This militia of warrior-soldiers was expected to know the duration of the New Davidic Kingdom. This kingdom would endure to His Parousia, and His Parousia would occur during the lapse of time representing the course of the current, contemporary, evil generation of Apostate Israel. This meant it would occur in their own generation. Thus, Jesus declares they had no need to know the exact time that must elapse before the Kingdom of God would be inaugurated, that is, they had no need of the specific day and hour. It was enough that they knew it would come in their generation. It was enough that they knew the prophetic events warning them of the last season of the Mosaic Eon, the years representing the Jewish war against Rome (66 a.d.–70 a.d.), rather than the various seasons representing all the critical events accompanying the process leading to the full restoration of the kingdom to Israel.

The specific knowledge of the times (the lapse of time leading up to the day and hour) and the seasons (consisting of all the critical interim events) the Father had placed in the appropriate authority. The Greek words designating this authority (Acts 1:7b) are in the feminine gender. Thus, they cannot be referring to the Father’s own authority or jurisdiction, as most texts translate. The appropriate authority must refer back to the only feminine word in the context, promise (Acts 1:4), the promise of the Father. The promise refers to the imminent pouring out of the spirit. The appropriate authority is the spirit of Yahweh and His Anointed One.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Promised Consoler

The continual operative activity of this spirit is the central focus of the Book of Acts. The authority to reveal the times and seasons had been placed in the revelatory activities of the spirit in directing the course of Yahweh’s will for His people (the new, spiritual Israel, the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah) during those last years of the Mosaic Eon. Jesus had already taught His disciples concerning the coming of the paraclete, the consoler, the spirit which would instruct and console them during the interval of His bodily absence. He would reign as Davidic King upon His Celestial Throne in the interest of (see Greek text of Romans 8:34; Eph. 1:20; Col. 3:1) the right hand of the Father,

And I shall be asking the Father, and He will be giving you another consoler [masculine, in place of the bodily absence of Jesus], in order that He [the Father], indeed, may be with you [as He was with them in the bodily presence of Jesus] for the eon [the Mosaic Eon]—the spirit of truth, which the world [the Mosaic system of Israel] can not receive, for it [Apostate Israel] is not beholding Him [the Father, Yahweh], neither is knowing Him. Yet you [the disciples of Jesus] know Him, for He [the Father, Yahweh] is remaining with you [as He had been remaining with them in the presence of Jesus] and will be in you [by means of the presence of the spirit which represents both the presence of Yahweh and the presence of the bodily absence of Jesus as He occupies and rules from His Celestial Throne in the interest of the right hand of the Father]. (John 14:16-17 my translation)

This coming consoler (masculine, referring to the terrestrial consolation of Jesus which this coming consoler will replace) is the spirit of Jesus the Messiah which would function as a paraclete (one called alongside to console or aid), a consoler, a teacher, a leader, representing the presence of Yahweh and the presence of the bodily absence of Jesus. Yahweh’s presence would remain with them as His presence had remained with them during the bodily presence of Jesus’ terrestrial ministry. Jesus had consoled His disciples, promising,

These things have I spoken to you, remaining with you. Now the consoler, the holy spirit, which the Father will be sending in My name, it will be teaching you all, and reminding you of all that I said to you. (John 14:25-26 my translation)

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Role of the Spirit

This spirit would not be speaking of itself nor would it be speaking its own will or instruction, as Jesus had previously revealed:

Still much have I to say to you [His disciples], but you are not able to bear it at present. Yet whenever that one [the resurrected, ascended, and absent Jesus as represented by His spirit] may be coming—the spirit of truth—it will be guiding you into all the truth, for it will not be speaking from itself, but whatsoever it should be hearing will it be speaking, and of the things coming will it be informing you. That one will be glorifying Me, because out of My things it will be receiving and will be informing you. (John 16:12-14 my translation)

Thus, this spirit, characterized as being truthful, would not speak about itself or by its own authority. It would not be speaking its own will. It would be speaking the will of Jesus as Jesus imparted to it His own instruction.

Therefore, it would be guiding His disciples into all the truth necessary for accomplishing their mission and warfare as determined by the will of the Father. This spirit of truthfulness would be informing the disciples of the things coming (the times and the seasons) as the knowledge of these things would be necessitated in order to accomplish the will and purpose of the Father as obediently implemented by the Son, His Anointed, Davidic Warrior-King.

This spirit would reveal the necessary information concerning the times and seasons as it directed the activities of the Ecclesia in the execution of her mission, in the spiritual warfare she would be waging against the Apostate Nation and Kingdom of the Israel according to flesh. Thus, Jesus announces,

But you shall be obtaining power at the coming of the holy spirit on you, and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem and in entire Judea and Samaria, as far as the limits of the earth [the land of Israel and the lands of the nations residing within the boundaries of the Roman Empire]. (Acts 1:8 CV)

The baptism in holy spirit would divinely authorize and empower the disciples of Jesus to successfully execute their mission and spiritual warfare beginning in Jerusalem, the heart of Israel and her system of worship. From Jerusalem, their mission would extend into the territories of Judea and Samaria, eventually extending into the lands of all the nations within the Roman Empire.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Inaccurate Perception of the Disciples

The disciples, however, at this time, understand their mission as being first and foremost to Israel. Upon Israel’s salvation, the nations would then be allowed to come into the light of her glory and enjoy her blessings, but as gentiles under Israel’s authority. From their perspective, this first necessitated the salvation and restoration of the kingdom to Israel. Thus, at this time, their commission to “disciple all the nations” (Matt. 28:19 CV) was understood as Go into all the nations among whom I have scattered My people and disciple scattered Israel. They understood the commission of Jesus as sending them only to the Jews in the holy land and in the Diaspora among the nations.

The disciples of Jesus at this time are ignorant of the secret of the kingdom. They are unacquainted with the yet-to-be revealed Gospel of the Uncircumcision. This ignorance will later explain why the salvation of Cornelius, an uncircumcised gentile, came as a shocking surprise to Peter and the circumcised saints.

Prior to the assassination of Stephen and the salvation of Cornelius, the Gospel had not been proclaimed to the nations, uncircumcised gentiles. It is the active involvement of the spirit which directs the disciples to preach the Gospel to the gentiles and which informs them concerning the Gospel of the Uncircumcision. Therefore, the Book of Acts consists of the activity of the spirit in its guidance and revelatory instruction directing the acts (the decisions and activities) of the Apostles and disciples of Jesus the Messiah in accordance with the instructions the spirit would receive from Jesus Himself. The spirit, thus, would progressively reveal the will of the Father through the Anointed Son enthroned upon the royal seat of David from which He reigns over the New Davidic Kingdom, His Ecclesia (called-out ones), the new, spiritual Israel of Yahweh.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Final Departure of Jesus

Jesus, completing His last instructions to His Apostles, is immediately lifted up from among them. Like Elisha wondrously beholding the departure of the living Elijah in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:9-12), the disciples astonishingly gaze up intently as Jesus is taken up in a cloud, departing from their sight. Elijah had asked Elisha his servant, “Ask what I shall do for thee, before I be taken away from thee” (2 Kings 2:9b KJV). Elisha responds, “let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me” (2 Kings 2:9c KJV). Elijah answers, “if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; . . .” (2 Kings 2:10b KJV). Elisha does witness the departure of Elijah,

And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. (2 Kings 2:11 KJV)

And Elisha does receive a double portion of the spirit of Elijah. For the sons of the prophets, seeing Elisha, testify, “The spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha” (2 Kings 2:15 KJV).

As Elisha beheld the departure of Elijah as he was transported into the Celestial Realm in an aerodynamic vehicle (celestial transportation cruiser) described, in the only terms available at that time for a moving vehicle, as “a chariot of fire, and horses of fire,” so also the Apostles of Jesus behold His departure into the Celestial Realm as He, also, is transported in an aerodynamic vehicle described, this time, as “a cloud” (Acts 1:9), the equivalent of “a chariot of fire, and horses of fire.” Such fire emitted from such a vehicle would create a sizeable cloud of fiery smoke. In the ancient world, the movements of the gods were associated with clouds. The Psalmist, similarly, characterizes Yahweh as He “Who is making the thick clouds His chariot, Who is going on the wings of the wind, making His messengers winds, His ministers a flaming fire . . .” (Ps. 104:3b-4 CV).

As Elisha received a double portion of the spirit of Elijah, so the Apostles were about to receive the spirit of Jesus the Messiah by which they were to be doing greater works than Jesus did in His terrestrial ministry,

Verily, verily, I am saying to you [plural, the apostles], he who is believing in Me, the works which I am doing he also will be doing, and greater than these will he be doing, for I am going to the Father. (John 14:12 CV)

The works of His Apostles would be greater than the works associated with Jesus’ terrestrial ministry because their works would be associated with His Celestial Ministry (having the greater promise of the Celestial Allotment, rather than the lesser promise of the terrestrial allotment) and the more abundant life of the New Davidic Covenant. The works of Jesus’ terrestrial ministry were associated with the Mosaic Covenant which became a ministry of death. The works of His Apostles would reflect His Celestial Ministry. These works would be associated with the New Davidic Covenant which would be a ministry of abundant, eonian, immortal life.

As Jesus departs the terrestrial realm returning to His Royal Davidic Throne in the interest of the right hand of the Father in the Celestial Realm, two celestial beings encouragingly announce,

Men! Galileans! Why do you stand, looking into heaven? This Jesus Who is being taken up from you into heaven shall come thus, in the manner in which you gaze at Him going into heaven. (Acts 1:11 CV)

These celestial beings confirm the testimony of Jesus concerning the coming Parousia within the time-span of the present generation. As these Apostles have beheld the departure of Jesus to His Celestial Davidic Throne, so also, they would behold, in like manner, His bodily presence at His final Royal Arrival. Thus, they are reassured of the imminent return of Jesus. They are to be confidently watching for His Parousia as they faithfully execute the righteous requirements of their mission. For, the triumphant return of the conquering Warrior-King would take place during the course of their lives and the lives of their contemporaries.

Jesus is to direct the spiritual warfare from His Celestial Throne in the interest of the right hand of His Father. During His bodily absence, His Warrior-King spiritual presence leading His spiritual warrior-soldiers into battle against the stratagems of The Adversary, Satan (implemented by the rulers, the authorities, the powers of the Sinatic/Mosaic world-order of the darkness of Apostate Israel, the malignant spiritual forces [antichrists] deceptively operating in the sphere of the celestial things committed to the Ecclesia, the spiritual Israel of Yahweh [see Eph. 6:11b-12]), would be represented by the activity of the spirit sent in His name (Jn. 14:26).

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Necessity of a Twelfth Apostle

After this departure of Jesus, the Apostles return to Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives. Later, it would be recalled that the prophet Zechariah had foretold that the Anointed One of Yahweh would come to the Mount of Olives and the Mount would be severed in two as His feet rested upon it (see my commentary on Zech. 14:4 in chapter 8 within the subsection titled “The Day of Yahweh,” under the main section titled “The Message of Zechariah and the Greek Scriptures”). This, of course, is metaphoric language which the spirit would interpret for them, giving them further assurance of the imminent return of their Lord.

Entering an upper chamber, they persevere “with one accord in prayer, together with the women and Miriam, the mother of Jesus, and His brothers” (Acts 1:14 CV). In continual prayer, they await the promise of the spirit. The brothers of Jesus, James and Judas (Jude), are now gathered with His Apostles, becoming faithful believers in Jesus as the Messiah after His resurrection appearances. James, the elder of the two remaining brothers, is soon to occupy a most important position in the about-to-be generated nation and kingdom. In the bodily absence of Jesus the King, James, as the remaining elder brother, would bodily be seated upon the terrestrial metaphorical throne of Jesus the Messiah in the midst of the new, spiritual Israel of Yahweh.

The Apostles had been informed by Jesus that they would

be eating and drinking at My table in My kingdom. And you will be seated on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. (Luke 22:30 CV)

In the New Davidic Kingdom of Jesus the Messiah, the Apostles would be accorded, within the king’s metaphoric house, a place of honor which in ancient Israel was associated with the king’s sons who enjoyed the privilege of eating and drinking at the king’s table (see 2 Sam. 9:7-11; 1 Kings 2:7). In the Apostles’ case, they would be privileged to partake of the king’s new covenantal drink and new covenantal food provided by the spirit’s special revelation and instruction. They would each occupy metaphorically a throne upon which they would judge the twelve tribes of the new spiritual, covenantal Israel of Yahweh. In this capacity, they would be held responsible to render ethical, covenantal, economic, social, organizational, and procedural decisions. Thus, they would rule, under the authority of Jesus (and James, representing Him in the terrestrial realm), as judges/princes ruled in ancient Israel. Their appointment came from Jesus the Messiah administering the will of Yahweh.

This would necessitate the choosing of a twelfth Apostle to replace Judas the traitor of Jesus, in accord with the testimony of scripture:

“. . . Let his domicile [habitation] become desolate, And let no one be dwelling in it,” . . . “Let his supervision be taken by another.” (Acts 1:20 CV, quoting Psalms 69:25; 109:8)

Two men qualify for this apostleship, each having been with Jesus from the time of His baptism by John the Baptist to the day “on which He was taken up from us” (Acts 1:22a CV). Consequently, “Joseph, called Bar-Sabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Mathias” (Acts 1:23 CV) are nominated.

To determine the will of their Lord concerning the selection of one of these men, they cast lots, indicating that the terms of the New Covenant had not yet been put into effect. The Kingdom of the Messiah had not yet been actively inaugurated in relation to His disciples, His Ecclesia. Under the Mosaic Covenant, such decisions were decided by the use of the lot. The spirit had not yet been poured out; the Apostles and disciples had not yet been baptized with holy spirit. The old covenant still applied.

Matthias is selected by means of the casting of the lot. The lot divinely falls upon the man Jesus chooses in effecting the will of the Father, Yahweh. This would be the last time the lot would be used. The old covenant is soon to be superseded by the New Covenant. The number of judges (princes) is now complete. The New Davidic Kingdom is about to be inaugurated on behalf of its citizens. Once inaugurated, there would be no further succession of judges/princes or viceroy. For the Parousia of Jesus the Messiah would be imminent, even in their generation.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Birth of a New Nation

The Day of Pentecost

The Festival of Pentecost occurs 50 days after Passover. Pentecost celebrates the firstfruits of the harvest. Upon the fulfillment of the ceremonies performed by the priests in their presentation to Yahweh of the firstfruits of the present harvest, something most unusual occurs in the Temple precincts. The Apostles and disciples (numbering about 120 names, Acts 1:15) are together “all alike in the same place” (Acts 2:1 CV). This “same place” is most likely an area within the Temple precincts.

The Apostles, the women, Miriam the mother of Jesus, and James and Judas (Jesus’ brothers) had been residing in what the text describes as “the upper chamber” (Acts 1:12-14). With verse 15 of chapter 1, the scene changes to “the same place,” where Peter had risen in the midst of the group of 120 names (this could refer to family names and so could represent more than 120 disciples) and had made his judgment concerning the need to appoint another Apostle. In this “same place,” at Pentecost, the text records,

And suddenly there came out of heaven a blare, even as of a violent, carrying blast [of wind], and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. (Acts 2:2 CV modified)

This same place must have been within the whole house of the Temple precinct where the Apostles and disciples are sitting. This is supported by the reaction of the multitude that had gathered together to celebrate the Festival of Pentecost. Hearing this wind-like loud blast, the members of a multitude of “Jews, pious men from every nation under heaven” (Acts 2:5 CV) find their way to the source of this loud blast. What place would more likely host this holy, new covenantal intervention of Yahweh and His Anointed King into the affairs of His elect people than the Temple precincts?!

Gathering before this group of 120 (or more ?) disciples of Jesus the Messiah, the members of this multitude of pious Jews from every nation under the heaven of the Roman Empire, the whole habitation of scattered Israel, are confused,

for each one hears them [the disciples] speaking in his own vernacular. Now they are all amazed, and marveled, saying, “Lo! are not all these who are speaking, Galileans? And how are we hearing, each in our own vernacular in which we were born? Parthians and Medes and Elamites and those dwelling in Mesopotamia, Judea, as well as Cappadocia, Pontus, and the province of Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, and the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and the repatriated Romans, both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabs—we are hearing them speaking in these languages of ours of the great things of God!” (Acts 2:6b-11 CV)

Peter, standing up with the eleven, seeking to correct the confusion of the multitude, addresses his audience as, “Men! Jews! and all who are dwelling at Jerusalem!” (Acts 2:14b CV). This multitude is limited to Jews and those Gentiles who have become proselytes through submission to the rite of circumcision. Thus, they are citizens of the commonwealth of Apostate Israel. There are no strangers and aliens among these religious Jews and Jewish proselytes. These Israelites are residing in or have journeyed to Jerusalem to obediently participate in the national Festival of Pentecost, one of the three festivals requiring national attendance by all Israel’s males (Deut. 16:16).

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Prophecy of Joel

Peter proclaims that this phenomenon of speech is a fulfillment of the prophet Joel. Yahweh, speaking through Joel, promised He would, in the last days, pour out His spirit upon all Israel. This would also be the fulfillment of the desire of Moses:

would God that all the Lord’s people were prophets, and that the Lord would put his spirit upon them! (Numbers 11:29 KJV modified)

This would not become a reality under the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant. Only under the administration of the New Davidic Covenant would this become a reality for all Israel.

Joel had also prophesied that Israel’s sons and daughters would prophesy, her young men and women would be seeing visions, her elders would be dreaming dreams. The use of double-entendre is to be noted when interpreting the meaning of the following lines:

And surely on My men slaves and on My women slaves in those days shall I be pouring out from My spirit, . . . (Acts 2:18 CV)

In its original context, this passage referred to Israelite men and women functioning as legal slaves to other Israelites due to the various misfortunes of daily life. Yahweh would pour out His spirit upon these misfortunate members of the nation. Concealed in this passage is its ultimate referral to uncircumcised Gentiles shortly to be given entrance into the New Israel of Yahweh. At the time of Peter’s proclamation at Pentecost, neither the twelve Apostles nor the remaining 108 (or more?) disciples are aware of this concealed meaning. The spirit would reveal this truth in the predetermined appointed time.

Speaking metaphorically, Joel (Acts 2:19-21 CV) goes on to declare that Yahweh would provide


miracles in heaven above,

And signs on the earth below, Blood and fire and vapor pillars of smoke,

The sun shall be converted into darkness

And the moon into blood

Ere the coming of the day of the Lord,

The great and advent day.

And it shall be that everyone, whosoever should be invoking the name of the Lord, shall be saved.


The miracles in heaven above and the signs on the earth below associated with blood, fire, and smoke are to be understood in relation to the sun becoming darkened and the moon becoming blood. This is metaphorical language referring to the change in covenants represented by the pouring out of the spirit upon the disciples of Jesus. The Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant is no longer authorized to provide covenantal life. It has been annulled. It has been superseded by the New Davidic Covenant consecrated by the shed blood of Jesus the Messiah.

The Mosaic administration has now become an administration of death in contrast to the New Davidic administration which is now the only administration of life. The Mosaic administration is now in the process of dispensing covenantal death, while the New Davidic administration is dispensing covenantal life, the life of the New Davidic Covenant imparted by the spirit of Yahweh and His Anointed King as demonstrated by the speaking in tongues (other languages) of the Apostles and disciples of Jesus the Messiah.

The Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah, now the new spiritual Israel of Yahweh born on this ultimate fulfillment of the Festival of Pentecost, has now been metaphorically, covenantally appointed her place in the metaphoric new heaven, replacing Apostate Israel now demoted to the terrestrial realm of the nations. The sun, the light, of Israel’s Sinatic relationship to Yahweh is now darkened. The glory of her covenantal life is reduced to a dim flicker in contrast to the new, exceeding illumination of the New, Spiritual Davidic Kingdom/Nation of Israel continually increasing the brightness of her covenantal glory. Apostate Israel has had the robe of her covenantal glory associated with the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant removed. She had tarnished her robe with the filth of her own traditions and commandments, defiling the Mosaic Law.

On this day of Pentecost, the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah had become robed in the glory of the New Davidic Covenant. She had been metaphorically exalted into the heaven of the New Covenant, manifesting the light of the Gospel of God, the Gospel of Jesus the Messiah, the Gospel revealing the righteousness of God, the power of God (Yahweh) for the salvation of Israel (Rom. 1:16-17). She had been cleansed in the blood of Jesus the Messiah, and through this blood her members would continually wash their own individual covenantal robes in the blood of the Lamb, maintaining their robes a virginal white, thus glorifying their Lord (Rev. 7:14; 22:14).

The metaphoric light of the moon upon which Apostate Israel had stood had been darkened by the blood of Jesus the Messiah Whom she delivered over to Rome for crucifixion death. Thus, the metaphoric moon in her covenantal sky which had reflected the light of Yahweh's Law upon the nations had become covered with innocent blood (the blood of Yahweh’s Anointed One, as well as His prophets), blotting the reflection of the glory of Yahweh displayed in His statutes and judgments contained in the Mosaic Covenant.

The miracles in the metaphorical heaven of the New Davidic Covenant consist of the cleansing power of the blood of Jesus the Messiah and the fire of His empowering spirit. The fire of His spirit empowers the faithful ones while destroying the unfaithful ones in Israel. The pouring out of His spirit displayed at Pentecost exemplifies the signs Yahweh would be revealing in the terrestrial realm of His people scattered throughout the Roman Empire. The day of the Lord (Yahweh) is imminent. The miracles and signs are to alert all Israel to the arrival of the salvation of Yahweh and the imminent day of destruction for those who refuse to repent and receive Jesus the Messiah (the day of salvation and the day of Yahweh’s visitation, see 2 Cor. 6:2; Lk. 19:44; 1 Pe. 2:12). The Apostles and disciples of Jesus the Messiah would proclaim the Gospel of Jesus the Messiah. Everyone hearing this Gospel and invoking the name of the Lord (Jesus the Anointed One of Yahweh) would be saved. Each one faithful to the end would be delivered from the curse of the Law of Moses and ushered into the Celestial Allotment of the faithful sons of Abraham.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The New Covenant of Jeremiah and Ezekiel


The birth of this new spiritual Israel is associated with the new covenant prophesied by Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Concerning the last days, Jeremiah writes,

but they [Israel] shall serve the Lord their God [Yahweh Elohim], and David their king, whom I [Yahweh] will raise up unto them. (Jeremiah 30:9 KJV)

Jesus is this king Whom Yahweh would raise up for Israel. As Davidic King, Jesus pours out His spirit upon His people, inaugurating His reign over His people. This He does on the basis of the newly established Davidic Covenant consecrated by His own shed blood. Jeremiah writes of this as follows,

Behold, the days come, saith the Lord [Yahweh], that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah [the Northern and Southern divided kingdoms]: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers [the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant] in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the Lord: But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God [Elohim], and they shall be my people. . . . for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more. (Jeremiah 31:31-34 KJV)

The writer of the Book of Hebrews testifies that the new covenant which Jeremiah writes of is the “better covenant” of which Jesus the Messiah is the Mediator. The author of Hebrews, quoting the passage above, testifies concerning Jesus the Messiah:

Yet now He [Jesus] has happened upon a more excellent ministry [than that of the Mosaic ministry], in as much as He is the Mediator, also, of a better covenant [than the Mosaic Covenant], which has been instituted on better promises. (Hebrews 8:6 CV)

Notice the use of the perfect tense of the last verb in this sentence, “has been instituted.” This new and better covenant mediated by Jesus the Messiah has already at that time been instituted. It was already in effect, and it was the very covenant which Jeremiah had written about. Thus, having quoted Jeremiah 31:31-34, the author of Hebrews, again using the perfect tense, concludes,

In saying “new,” He [Jesus as Yahweh’s Anointed Son] has made the former [the Mosaic Covenant] old. Now that which is growing old and decrepit is near its disappearance. (Hebrews 8:13 CV)

Here is confirmation of the meaning of Joel’s prophecy concerning the giving of miracles in heaven above and signs on the earth, the sun turning into darkness and the moon into blood. The glory of the New Covenant exceeds and nullifies the glory of the old covenant. The glory of the New Covenant, during the course of these last days (beginning with the pouring out of the spirit and ending with the Royal Arrival of Jesus the Messiah in 70 a.d.), increasingly grows in magnitude while the glory of the old covenant continuously decreases in magnitude, becoming decrepit and near its disappearance, its telos, its end, its termination—death, that is, the Second Death.

Paul writes of these same two covenants:

Now . . . God . . . makes us competent dispensers of a new covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, for the letter is [presently] killing, yet the spirit is [presently] vivifying. (2 Corinthians 3:4-6 CV)

He then continues,

For if that [the old, decrepit covenant] which is presently being made ineffective [by the superexceeding glory of the New Covenant] is presently being made ineffective through the decrease of its glory, much rather that [the new invigorated covenant] which is presently remaining effective, remains effectual as a result of its continuously increasing magnitude of glory. (2 Corinthians 3:11 my translation)

At Pentecost, the new, invigorated covenant comes in exceedingly greater glory than the glory of the old, decrepit covenant, even at its greatest magnitude. This exceedingly great glory will continue to increase in magnitude as it successfully affects the hearts and minds of those faithfully receiving the proclamation of the Gospel.

To those receiving this exceedingly great glory, the ministry of the spirit administers covenantal life and the promise of entrance into the Celestial Allotment of the faithful children of Abraham. To those rejecting and opposing this exceeding great glory, the ministry of the letter of the old, decrepit covenant ensnares them in its administration of covenantal death and the loss of entrance into the Celestial Allotment of Yahweh’s faithful ones. These unfaithful ones are cast out into outer darkness, that is, outside the New Davidic covenantal relationship to Yahweh and His Anointed King. These are excluded from the commonwealth of the New Spiritual Israel of Yahweh. They forfeit the promise which could have been theirs as a result of their being placed among Yahweh’s elect people, the faithful children of Abraham.

(Return to Table of Contents)


The prophet Ezekiel also wrote of this new covenant. During the last days of the Mosaic Eon, Yahweh would gather His people from among the peoples where they had been scattered. He would give them “the land of Israel (Ezk. 11:17b KJV). He would give them this land spiritually in accord with the new covenant Ezekiel describes as

I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh: that they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God. (Ezekiel 11:19-20 KJV)

This began to occur at Pentecost with the pouring out of the spirit of Yahweh. A new spiritual nation is born on this momentous day. This people is given one heart, a circumcised heart of flesh in place of the uncircumcised heart of stone characterizing Apostate Israel. This one, circumcised heart of flesh is the result of “a new spirit within you” (Ezk. 11:19a KJV). This new spirit is the spirit of Yahweh and His Anointed Son poured out at this eon-transforming Festival of Pentecost.

This new, spiritual nation, now operating according to the terms of the New Davidic Covenant superseding the Old Sinatic Covenant, is generated and called in order that she might walk in Yahweh’s statutes, obediently keeping the spirit of the ordinances (and the letter when applicable) of the Mosaic Covenant. This new nation would put away from among her people “the detestable things” and “all the abominations” (Ezk. 11:18 KJV) operating among the people of Apostate Israel, thereby purifying the land and spiritually, covenantally, occupying the land. This new nation would reflect Yahweh’s glory in her faithful fulfillment of all that Yahweh’s Law required.

As such, this new, spiritual nation would honorably be Yahweh’s people, and Yahweh would proudly be her God. This New Davidic people would be a faithful kingdom of priests, successfully fulfilling the intended purpose of Yahweh in electing, creating, generating, and calling this nation. Under the New Davidic Kingship of Jesus the Messiah, this spiritual Israel of Yahweh would become the holy nation it had been chosen and called to be under the terms of the Sinatic Covenant. The elect nation had failed under the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant. The new spiritual Israel of Yahweh would not fail under the New Davidic Covenant.

Individuals participating in The Christ, The Ecclesia, the New Davidic Kingdom, might fail; but the new, corporate, Born-From-Above nation, the Ecclesia, the Bride, the Body of Jesus the Christ would not fail. The gift of the spirit, identifying the coming legitimacy of the New Davidic Covenant, empowered those receiving it, but it did not eliminate the need to willingly choose to implement its powers by obediently conforming one’s mind and conduct to the requirements of the New Covenant directing the New Man, the New Nation, the New Creation, the New Israel of Yahweh and His Anointed Son.

This new spirit of Ezekiel, representing the new covenant referred to by Jeremiah and the New Covenant of the writers of the Greek Scriptures, is confirmed as referring to the New Davidic Covenant by the testimony of Paul. Ezekiel describes this new spirit within you as a heart of flesh. Paul, writing of the New Covenant which he and the Twelve Apostles dispensed, writes,

You [the Corinthian ecclesia, faithful ones] are our epistle, engraven in our hearts, known and read under the gaze of all men, for you are manifesting an epistle of Christ, dispensed by us, and engraven, not with ink, but with the spirit of the living God, not on stone tablets, but on the fleshy tablets of [your] hearts. (2 Corinthians 3:2-3 my translation)

Paul equates the new covenant of Jeremiah and the “new spirit within you . . . a heart of flesh” (instead of a stony heart, Ezk. 11:19 KJV) with the New Covenant which he and others in Christ were in the process of dispensing.

(Return to Table of Contents)

Peter’s Interpretive Proclamation

The Significance of the Divided Kingdoms of Judah and Israel

Having quoted Joel to explain the phenomenon of the pouring out of the spirit and the fact that the present generation of Israelites is living in the last days of the Mosaic Eon, Peter addresses specifically, “Men! Israelites!” (Acts 2:22a CV) in order to further interpret the significance of this event and the prophecy of Joel for the present generation of Israelites. His message is only for Israelites associated with the Southern Kingdom of Judah which had been conquered by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. and had been scattered among the nations of the Babylonian Empire. Many of these Israelites (Jews) returned to the land of Judea under Ezra and Nehemiah, contributing to the formation of the present nation dwelling in Judea.

The nations listed in Acts 2:5-11 as dwelling in Jerusalem as either pilgrims come up for the festivals of Passover and Pentecost or as those Jews among the Diaspora who had settled in Jerusalem seem to form symbolically a rough geographical circle around Jerusalem, the center of the Jewish world-order. James D. G. Dunn (1996) suggests these nations form a circle “from Parthians, Medes and Elamites in the east round in an anticlockwise circle with Egypt, Cyrene, Rome, Crete and Arabia circumscribing the second half of the circle (west or south). There is possibly an echo of some record of Jewish dispersion” (p. 26). These Jews, both those settled in Jerusalem or Judea and those visiting from among the nations of the Roman Empire, represent the Southern Kingdom of Judah possessing the promise of the Davidic Covenant and Davidic King.

The Northern Kingdom of Israel had been scattered among the nations of the Assyrian Empire, becoming Lo-Ammi, not My people, thus, gentiles, uncircumcised ones. Jeremiah had understood this division (Jer. 31:31) of the house of David when he had declared that Yahweh’s new covenant would be with the house of Judah (the Southern Kingdom) and the house of Israel (the Northern Kingdom). Zechariah, recognizing this same division, had declared of Yahweh that He would “save the tents of Judah first” (Zech. 12:7 KJV). Paul confirms this division of kingdom and order of salvation when he writes, “to the Jew first, and to the Greek as well” (Rom. 1:16b CV). By Jew he means the circumcised Jew of the Southern Kingdom of Judah. By Greek he means the uncircumcised gentile of the Hellenistic culture, among whom the Lo-Ammi Israelites of the Northern Kingdom had been absorbed, becoming uncircumcised gentiles.

The Gospel of the Uncircumcision given to Paul is aimed at the spiritual/covenantal reconciliation of the Israelites belonging to the Northern Kingdom. This reconciliation would be possible only on the basis of the authorization of the New Davidic Covenant which would bring about the restoration of the whole house of David—The Southern Kingdom and the Northern Kingdom.

Peter’s proclamation of salvation on the day of Pentecost is addressed to those Jews of the Southern Kingdom dwelling in Jerusalem, Judea, and the remaining lands of the Roman Empire. Not until the spirit guides the disciples to proclaim the Gospel of Christ to the gentiles does Yahweh’s salvation reach out to embrace those Israelites who had become totally identified with the uncircumcised nations, those Israelites whose roots reached back to the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Until then, Peter and the eleven Apostles are to attend to the Jewish harvest already ripe for reaping in the land,

Are you not saying that, “Still four months is it, and the harvest is coming”? Lo! I [Jesus] am saying to you [His disciples], Lift up your eyes and gaze on the countrysides, for they are white for harvest already . . . I commission you to reap that for which you have not toiled. Others have toiled, and you have entered into their toil. (John 4:35, 38 CV)

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Commission to Reap the Harvest

Pentecost celebrates the reaping of the firstfruit of the wheat harvest and its presentation to Yahweh. The nation born on the day of Pentecost of Acts, chapter 2, is designated by the writer of Hebrews as “the ecclesia of the firstborn ones” (Heb. 12:23 CV). James designates this same ecclesia as “firstfruit of His [Yahweh’s] own creatures” (James 1:18 CV). Paul writes, “Greet Epanetus, my beloved, who is the firstfruit of the province of Asia for Christ” (Rom. 16:5b CV). He also refers to the house of Stephanas and Fortunatus as “the firstfruit of Achaia” (1 Cor. 16:15 CV). The writer of Revelation refers to this same ecclesia of faithful ones following the lamb (Jesus) as “bought out from the men [the men of the nation Israel, Jews], a firstfruit to God and the Lamb” (Rev. 14:4b my translation).

The proclamation of Peter addressed to “Men! Israelites!” is the beginning of this commission to spiritually reap the spiritual harvest which other servants of Yahweh had sowed (for example, the prophets, John the Baptist, and Jesus). Yahweh had prepared the harvest of wheat representing those among the multitude of Apostate Israel whose hearts had been circumcised. Yahweh had many within Apostate Israel whose hearts were open to His voice, His word. These had been cultivated by Yahweh’s legitimate servants and were ready for harvesting into the New Davidic Kingdom of Jesus the Messiah. Yahweh’s word had been planted and cultivated in the hearts of many Israelites, and Yahweh’s word never returns to Him void (Isa. 55:11). It accomplishes His purpose.

The disciples of Jesus the Messiah (the 120 names gathered together in the Temple precincts during the first Festival of Pentecost occurring after the ascension of Jesus) are now entering into the fields of Israel, reaping the harvest consisting of Israel’s righteous children of Abraham (those whose hearts have been prepared to faithfully receive the proclamation of the Gospel of Christ). Many hearts in Israel had been tenderly disposed to the voice of Yahweh heard in the terrestrial ministries of John the Baptist and Jesus. These had been prepared to respond in faith, like faithful Abraham, to the proclamation of the resurrection and ascension of Jesus the Anointed Davidic King of Yahweh, the proclamation concerning the promised salvation of Israel.

Yahweh had many in Israel who had not bowed the knee to Baal, that is, Apostate Israel. In Elijah’s time, when the nation of Israel had bowed the knee to Baal, the god of the Canaanites, 7,000 Israelites had persisted in their faithfulness to Yahweh, bowing in worship to Yahweh alone. They had been persecuted and had suffered for the righteousness of the Mosaic Law, even as Elijah had been persecuted and had suffered at the hands of foreign queen Jezebel (wife of Ahab, king of Israel) and the false prophets of Baal (see 1 Kings 19:1-3). In that evil time, Yahweh had protected a faithful remnant from annihilation in order that they might continue to carry the truth of the light of Yahweh’s covenant:

Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel [the Northern Kingdom], all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him. (1 Kings 19:18 KJV)

Throughout the historical developments of His holy nation, Yahweh had continually protected a faithful remnant to accomplish His intended will and purpose. So, also, among the last evil generation of Apostate Israel, Yahweh had many whose hearts were circumcised, whose knees were genuinely bowed in worship to Yahweh only. These hearts had been tenderly affected by the ministries of the Baptist and Jesus. They would soon respond in faith to the Gospel of Christ proclaimed by the Apostles and disciples of Jesus in the power of the spirit of Yahweh and His Anointed Son.

Many of these whose hearts were circumcised remained blind and ignorant due to the adversarial customs and teachings of their false rulers and teachers (the apostate judges, princes, priests, and rabbis), their apostate shepherds concerned only with the political and religious survival of the nation as related to their own power and welfare (see Zech. 11:3-17). These righteous-in-heart Israelites, like Saul of Tarsus, would remain blind and ignorant until the appointed time and season of Yahweh, during which the revelation of Jesus the Messiah’s glory would open their eyes to the truth of the Gospel and dispel their ignorance, their false perceptions and conceptions. At that time, all Israel would be saved. The Apostles and disciples of Jesus the Messiah are convinced, and rightly so, of the imminence of that time. Thus, they confidently enter the fields of Israel to reap the harvest according to the commissioning of Jesus. They (ministers of the New Covenant) would reap Yahweh’s harvest which had been sown by His faithful servants ministering under the Mosaic Covenant. As Jesus had correctly perceived (seeing through the eyes of Yahweh), the fields of Israel had already been “white for harvest” (Jn. 4:35b CV). Therefore, the harvest was already present. At Pentecost, the reaping had already begun. The completion of the harvesting was imminent; it would be accomplished in their generation.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Eschatological Significance of Israel’s Festivals: Times and Seasons

Passover, Unleavened Bread, and Wave-Sheaf

The eschatological significance of Pentecost must be understood in relation to its place among the seven festivals of Israel. The eschatological fulfillment of these festivals reflect the times and seasons which Yahweh has placed in the authoritative mission of the spirit. The first festival to be eschatologically fulfilled is Passover. Jesus becomes the Passover lamb of Israel. He is crucified on the 14th day of Nisan (the first month of Israel’s calendar), the very day the Passover lambs were to be sacrificially slaughtered.

Jesus had declared that He would be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. This must be understood metaphorically and in reference to Jesus’ use of Jonah as the only sign given to the then present wicked and adulteress generation (the then present Apostate Israel). Jesus had declared,

A generation, wicked and an adulteress, for a sign is seeking, and a sign will not be given to it except the sign of Jonah the prophet. For even as Jonah was in the bowel [koilia] of the sea monster three days and three nights, thus will the Son of the Man be in the heart [kardia] of the earth [gai] three days and three nights. (Matthew 12:39-40 CV)

Jonah is said to have been in the “bowel” (koilia) of the sea monster for three days and three nights. Jesus declares He would be “in the heart of the earth” (Greek, gai) not the bowel (Greek, koilia) of the earth. The Greek word gai can also be translated land according to its context. In the passage quoted above, Jesus is not referring to the physical earth, but to the heart of the land of Israel, which is Jerusalem.

This is substantiated when one considers the fact that Jesus was not buried in the earth, the literal ground, but entombed in a quarried rock (see Matt. 27:57-60). This is why Jesus chooses to use the word “heart” rather than “bowel.” Jonah struggled with death in the bowel of the sea monster, but Jesus was to struggle with death in the heart of the land of Israel, thus, literally in the navel of the land, Jerusalem: in the Garden of Gethsemane and on the cross on the hillside of Golgotha facing (and just outside) the eastern gate of the Temple.

Thus, the heart of the land refers figuratively to Jerusalem and the vicinity of the Temple. As Jonah had suffered the pangs of death in the bowel of the sea monster, so Jesus would suffer the pangs of death in the figurative sea monster of Apostate Israel, beginning in the Garden of Gethsemane, continuing on the hillside of Golgotha, and ending in the quarried rock, all located on the Mount of Olives in the heart of the land.

Hence, Jesus’ three nights and three days in the heart of the land (Matt. 12:40) begins with His ordeal in the Garden of Gethsemane, occurring during the night of the 14th of Nisan. Thus began His death in the heart of the land (Jerusalem). The following day (His first day in the heart of the land) of the 14th of Nisan He is crucified, giving up His spirit at about 3:00 p.m. He is then entombed just prior to the arrival of the evening of the 15th day of Nisan.

In celebrating the Festival of Passover, the Passover lamb is eaten during the evening of the 15th day of Nisan, His second night in the heart of the land. The morning of the 15th is His second day in the heart of the land and marks the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread. The evening of the 16th of Nisan is His third night in the heart of the land.

During the morning of the 16th day of Nisan (His third day in the heart of the land), He is resurrected from the dead. This marked the very day during which the third festival occurred, the Wave-Sheaf, the waving (presentation to Yahweh) of the first sheaf harvested from the early barley harvest. Thus, Jesus’ death, resurrection, and His ascension to His Father fulfills eschatologically the times and seasons represented by the festivals of Passover, Unleavened Bread, and Wave-Sheaf.

(Return to Table of Contents)


The Festival of Weeks, Pentecost, is the fourth festival of Israel. This festival occurs on the 50th day following the presentation to Yahweh of the sheaf offering, this day of presentation being the first day of the counting. The Festival of Weeks consists of 7 weeks of 7 days, 49 days in all, the 50th day marking the Festival of Pentecost, the presentation to Yahweh of the firstfruits of the wheat harvest.

Thus, the 120 disciples (or more?) baptized with the spirit represent the spiritual presentation to Yahweh of the spiritual firstfruits of the spiritual wheat harvest in accord with the New Covenant consecrated by the shed blood of Jesus. These disciples and all those gathered into the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah through their proclamation of the Gospel make up the Ecclesia of the firstborn ones, the Ecclesia of the firstfruits. The spirit poured out at Pentecost would reveal in its own time the covenantal significance of these festivals already eschatologically fulfilled, as well as the three concluding festivals marking the times and seasons of the last day and hour of the Mosaic Eon and the Parousia of Jesus the Messiah.

The terrestrial ministry of Jesus was a preparation for a new, a final, an eschatological exodus. On the mount of transfiguration, just prior to the death of Jesus,

two men conferred with Him [Jesus], who were Moses and Elijah, who, being seen in the glory, spoke of His exodus, which He was about to be completing in Jerusalem. (Luke 9:30-31 CV)

The exodus here spoken of referred to His death, resurrection, and ascension to the Father. However, His exodus to the Father would result in His leading a new, spiritual, covenantal exodus, an exodus out from the bondage of Apostate Israel into the freedom of the New Davidic Israel of Yahweh (the Born-From-Above Israel), an exodus culminating in an entrance into the promised Celestial Allotment.

The Festival of Passover celebrated Israel’s exodus out of Egyptian bondage. Jesus as the Passover lamb would, after His resurrection and ascension, represent the celebration of the promised eschatological exodus under the leadership of a Second, but a much superior Moses. The Apostles and disciples of Jesus are definitely living in the last days as announced by Peter in his quotation from Joel.

The pouring out of the spirit on the day of Pentecost is equivalent to the birth/creation of Israel at Sinai. Yahweh had breathed into the nostrils of Israel the Ten Words of covenantal life, and Israel became a living national man. Now, Yahweh, through His Anointed Son, had breathed into the nostrils of the new spiritual Israel (the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah, the Born-From-Above Israel) the vivifying inspiration of the spirit of new covenantal life, and the new spiritual Israel became a new living national man.

The Sinatic Covenant had taken espoused Israel and bound her in marriage to Yahweh as His one and only legal wife. The New Davidic Covenant, inaugurated at Pentecost, had espoused the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah to Jesus, guaranteeing her imminently future marriage as Jesus’ one and only legal wife at the consummation of His Parousia. Thus, the Ecclesia became at Pentecost the Bride of the Lamb, the Passover Lamb, Who through death, resurrection, and ascension, became “The Lion out of the tribe of Judah (Rev. 5:5b CV).

Israel, after the inauguration of the Sinatic Covenant, had to journey through the wilderness in order to enter the Land of Promise. Similarly, the new, spiritual Israel would have to journey through a wilderness during which she would have to make war and conquer her enemies as she establishes her loyal faithfulness to her Lord and Master, soon to become her husband at the completion of the contractual (covenantal) terms. The Ecclesia (Apostles and disciples), now covenantally bound to Jesus, begins her journey through the spiritual wilderness of Apostate Israel, proclaiming the Gospel of Christ, actively combating the sovereignties, authorities, and world-mights of covenantal darkness, those carrying out the stratagems of The Adversary (see Eph. 6:10-17), while awaiting the day of her marriage. On that day (the consummation of the Parousia), the marriage would be spiritually, covenantally consummated, and she would become the one and only legal wife of Jesus the Messiah, becoming His covenantal wife, His spiritual Complement, His Body, that is, His spiritual “bone of my bones and flesh from my flesh” (Gen. 2:23 CV).

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Final Three Festivals

The first four festivals are spring festivals. They take place in the first month of Israel’s holy calendar. The final three festivals take place in the fall, during the seventh month of the holy calendar. The seventh month symbolizes the completion of the last days. The eschatological fulfillment of those final three festivals occurs during the Royal Approach/Arrival of the Parousia of Jesus the Messiah. Thus, they represent the final times and seasons to be revealed by the spirit. Since the seventh month marks the end of the agricultural year and the beginning of a new one, eschatologically, the festivals of the seventh month mark the ending of the Mosaic Eon and the beginning of a new eon.

Trumpets. The fifth festival takes place on the first day of the seventh month. It is a day of memorial. Trumpets are blown, calling the people of the covenant into remembrance before Yahweh their Elohim (Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 29:1-6). This festival is eschatologically fulfilled in relation to the New Davidic Covenant at the initiation of the Royal Approach of Jesus the Messiah. Paul writes of this approach that

the Lord Himself will be descending from heaven with a shout of command . . . with the trumpet of God . . . (1 Thessalonians 4:16 CV)

This trumpet announces the Royal Approach of Jesus the Davidic King, calling together the people of the New Davidic Covenant. This call is “a shout of command,” authorizing the revelation in glory of the sons of Yahweh, the Ecclesia of Firstfruits, as Paul wrote of in Romans:

For I am reckoning that the sufferings of the current era do not deserve the glory about to be revealed for us. . . . the unveiling of the sons of God [Yahweh]. (Romans 8:18a-19b CV)

The Ecclesia of Firstfruits shares in the sufferings of Jesus the Messiah. This suffering is rewarded by their manifestation in glory at the first announcement of the Royal Approach of Jesus the Davidic King. This takes place during the metaphorical season of the final harvest of the agricultural year, in this case, the final harvest of those Israelites, like Saul of Tarsus, who had remained blind in their ignorance. Their hearts are circumcised; they are zealous of Yahweh’s law, but they have been ignorantly deceived by the false shepherds of Apostate Israel. These Israelites will have their spiritual eyes opened. They will spiritually perceive the glory of Jesus the Messiah, the New Davidic King, as it is manifested in His Ecclesia.

Jesus, speaking of “the harvest [which] is the conclusion of the eon” (Matt. 13:39b CV), describes this day of the manifestation of His glory in His Ecclesia as follows:

Then [at the eschatological fulfillment of the Festival of Trumpets] shall the just be shining out as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. (Matthew 13:43 CV)

In His eschatological proclamation He declares that He

shall be dispatching His messengers [celestial beings] with a loud sounding trumpet, and they shall be assembling His chosen . . . (Matthew 24:31a CV)

This is, of course, figurative language. But it does represent a real, historical event occurring during the period described as the last day and hour of the Mosaic Eon.

Paul, again, writing metaphorically of this time, announces,

We all, indeed, shall not be put to repose, yet we all shall be changed, in an instant, in the twinkle of an eye, at the last trump. For He [Jesus] will be trumpeting, and the dead will be roused incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality. (1 Corinthians 15:51-53 CV)

The events of the final day and hour do not necessarily occur simultaneously. These metaphoric descriptions of the eschatological Festival of Trumpets begin to take place at the metaphoric trumpet announcement of the Royal Approach of the Davidic King. This represents a period of time during the last years of the Jewish revolt against Rome, which was imminent for the Apostles and disciples.

The first trump is a call to readiness, an alerting of the Ecclesia of Firstfruits. At the sound of this trumpet, the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah is manifested in the glory of The Christ, even as Jesus the Messiah had been manifested in His glory to Saul of Tarsus on the road to Damascus. At the last trump, occurring a short time later, after the eschatological fulfillment of the Festival of Tabernacles, the entire Ecclesia (called-out ones), consisting of the firstfruits and the final harvest, is called up to meet Jesus her Lord and King, being snatched up into the atmosphere by interstellar vehicles (celestial transportation cruisers) described as “clouds.”

Thereupon, the Ecclesia, led by Jesus the Messiah, metaphorically marches into her Celestial Allotment previously prepared for her by Jesus during His physical absence from the terrestrial realm, the time during which these faithful ones had

washed their robes and whitened them in the blood of the lamb. (Revelation 7:14b my translation)

This Ecclesia, according to Paul, is the very Ecclesia which,

Christ also loved . . . and gave Himself up for Her sake, in order that He should be hallowing Her having cleansed Her by the washing of the water in the sphere of the interest of His declaration, in order that He should be presenting to Himself a glorious Ecclesia, not having spot or wrinkle or any such things, but in order that She may be holy [set apart for Himself and His Father] and unblemished. (Ephesians 5:25b-27 my translation)

This is the same Ecclesia which Peter exhorts,

Wherefore, beloved, hoping for these things [the new heavens and new earth and their Celestial Allotment], endeavor to be found by Him [at His Parousia] in peace, unspotted and flawless [unblemished]. (2 Peter 3:14 CV)

To be found by Him unspotted and flawless, these faithful ones had to remain faithful to the end, to the telos of the Mosaic Eon. Thus, each one had to be continually washing his or her robe in the blood of the Lamb, that is, each one had to be continually sharing in His sufferings until the telos of the Mosaic Eon, until the Royal Approach/Arriving (Parousia) of Jesus the Messiah. Such faithfulness to such suffering is to be understood as that suffering associated with the righteousness of Yahweh, the righteousness of the Kingdom, the righteousness of the Gospel of God and His Anointed Son, the righteousness associated with the cross of Jesus the Messiah,

to know Him, and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, conforming to His death [crucifixion], . . . (Philippians 3:10 CV)

To be conformed to His crucifixion death meant to be crucified to the world-order, the system of the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant, in order to be free to serve Yahweh and His Anointed Son according to the world-order, the system of the New Davidic Covenant, thus, to serve in the newness of the spirit rather than in the oldness of the letter (Rom. 7:6; 2 Cor. 3:1-3).

(Return to Table of Contents)

Atonement (Propitiatory-Shelter). The Festival of Atonement (Propitiatory-Shelter) occurs on the tenth day of the seventh month (Num. 29:7-11). On the day this festival occurs, all Israelites are to humble their souls (Lev. 16:31 CV) before Yahweh. This is the day the High Priest is to enter the Holy of Holies with blood to cleanse the nation of her uncleanness due to unpresumptuous transgressions. The blood for this cleansing is to be taken from the sacrificial slaying of the hairy goat of the sin offering (Lev. 16:15).

The High Priest is to

take the two hairy goats and stand them before Yahweh at the opening of the tent of appointment. Then Aaron will cast lots over the two hairy goats, one lot for Yahweh and one lot for the goat of departure. Aaron will bring near the hairy goat over which the lot for Yahweh comes up and make it a sin offering. Yet the hairy goat over which the lot for the goat of departure comes up shall stay alive before Yahweh to make a propitiatory shelter over it and send it away as the goat of departure to the wilderness. (Leviticus 16:7-10 CV)

The blood of the hairy goat of the sin offering is used to make a propitiatory-shelter (atonement) for the nation, cleansing her for another yearly cycle, for the High Priest enters the Holy of Holies only once a year. Having made a propitiatory-shelter for the whole assembly of Israel, the High Priest is to

bring near the live hairy goat. Aaron will support his two hands on the head of the live hairy goat, confess over it all the depravities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in all their sins and put them on the head of the hairy goat and send it away by the hand of a ready man to the wilderness. Thus the hairy goat will bear on it all their depravities to an inaccessible land, and he [Aaron, the High Priest] will send the hairy goat free into the wilderness. (Leviticus 16:20b-22 CV)

This living, hairy goat is to bear upon it all the presumptuous transgressions of the nation. These presumptuous transgressions are described in the above passage as “depravities.” Such “depravities” are committed by the Cainite nation, the rebellious, stiff-necked nation of unfaithful ones, thus polluting the Abelite remnant of faithful Israel. The Festival of Atonement (Propitiatory-Shelter) provides a propitiatory-shelter over both the Abelites and the Cainites, the faithful nation and the apostate nation, allowing this schismatic nation to continue in the presence of Yahweh for another year.

The hairy goat of departure represents the apostate Cainite nation whose transgressions are presumptuous. Yahweh allows both peoples, both nations to exist simultaneously, thus, the tares and the wheat, the faithful remnant over against the decadent, as David testifies,

The decadent one says in his heart, There is no Elohim. They have become corrupt and abhorrent with iniquitous deeds. There is no one [of these] doing good. Yahweh, He gazes down from the heavens on these sons of Adam, to see whether there is anyone [of these decadent ones] acting intelligently, anyone [of these] seeking after Elohim. All of these decadent ones withdraw aside; together they are spoiled. There is no one of these doing good; there is not even one. (Psalms 14:1-3, my translation)

In this passage David is not describing all humanity. He is describing the Cainite sons of Adam who are members of the holy nation of Israel. These fools, decadent ones in their heart, pollute the whole nation. Yahweh graciously, mercifully, compassionately cleanses all these decadent ones, continually extending to them a call to repentance, allowing them the opportunity to become faithful participants in the Israel of Yahweh, those Israelites committed to Yahweh’s Covenant, Yahweh’s Law.

That this is David’s meaning is to be seen in the continuing lines of Psalm 14:

Have they [these decadent ones] no knowledge, all these contrivers of lawlessness, these very ones who are devouring my people [the Abelite remnant, the lawful ones] as they would devour bread? These decadent ones do not call upon Yahweh [in their hearts, v. 1]. There [in whatever place Yahweh manifests His judgment upon the wicked, even His call to repentance] they are afraid with awe. For Elohim is with the generation of the righteous one. You evildoers would put to shame the counsel of the humble one. Yet Yahweh is his [the righteous, humble one] refuge. O that the salvation of Israel would come from Zion, When Yahweh will reverse the captivity of His people! Let Jacob [Yahweh’s allotment] exult! Let Israel [the Israel of Yahweh] rejoice! (Psalms 14:4-7 my translation)

The decadent ones in Israel (see Isa. 32:6) immorally (lawlessly) conclude in their hearts that Yahweh fails to distinguish between the virtuous, faithful ones and the vicious, faithless ones. Thus, the decadent one makes this conclusion the ruling principle of his life. These decadent ones have no excuse. They are aware of Yahweh’s Law and His historical intervention on behalf of Israel. They reject this knowledge, this revelation. They conclude that this knowledge is false, erroneous.

As a result, they continue to devise various lawless schemes, distorting the Law of Yahweh for their own welfare, adding their own traditions to gain power, social and political honors, and economic wealth for themselves at the expense of the righteousness and the purity of Yahweh’s Covenant. Outwardly, publicly, they profess Yahweh as their Elohim. Inwardly, they are hypocrites glorying in their uncircumcised hearts. They tremble in awe where and when Yahweh seemingly manifests His judgment against the lawless. They fearfully tremble at the proclamation of Yahweh’s authentic prophets. But most spurn Yahweh’s judgment and mercy.

David, however, concludes that Yahweh Elohim is with the generation of the righteous ones, those who humble themselves before Yahweh, respecting and loving His law. The evildoers, the decadent ones, the unfaithful ones, the arrogant ones, the sons of Cain put to shame, ridicule the righteous counsel of the sons of Abel. In spite of this, Yahweh remains the refuge of the faithful, lawful members of the Abelite remnant who humble themselves before Yahweh and His covenant.

These are the ones who suffer for the sake of the righteousness of Yahweh in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation of Cainites. On their behalf, David cries out for the salvation of Israel. He understands Yahweh’s salvation is to come from Zion, in complete agreement with Isaiah and Paul (see Isa. 59:20; Rom. 11:26b). In that day of salvation, Yahweh would reverse the captivity of His people. Thus, even in David’s day, the Israel of Yahweh, the people of Yahweh (the faithful, lawful, obedient ones whose hearts are circumcised) are understood by David as being in captivity to the apostate, Cainite Israel according to flesh.

Jesus the Messiah (the salvation of Yahweh for His people), representing the Israel of Yahweh, the faithful ones, the Abelites, those whose hearts are circumcised, becomes the hairy goat of the sin offering while Apostate Israel becomes the hairy goat of departure. Upon the hairy goat of departure is placed all the depravities of Apostate Israel (the sons of Cain). This hairy goat of departure bears these depravities into “an inaccessible land” (Lev. 16:22b CV) which Jesus describes metaphorically as outer darkness where there would be “lamentation and gnashing of teeth” (see Matt. 8:12; 22:13-14; 25:30). Thus, Jesus would fulfill the eschatological Festival of Atonement.

This eschatological fulfillment of the Festival of Atonement (Propitiatory-Shelter) occurs at the royal, priestly arrival of Jesus the Messiah during the final years of the Jewish revolt against Rome. When Jesus died on the cross, the veil in the Temple had been rent in two:

Now Jesus, again crying with a loud voice, lets out the spirit. And lo! the curtain of the temple is rent in two from above to the bottom, . . . (Matthew 27:50-51a CV)

Upon His resurrection and ascension, He enters as High Priest after the order of Melchizedek (see Ps. 110:4; Heb. 5:6; 6:20; 7:17, 21) into the celestial Holy of Holies. Metaphorically, He enters having His own blood whereby He cleanses His people (His Ecclesia, the Israel of Yahweh, and all the nations under the sun) from their transgressions. He does this only once, for there would no longer be any further need for blood sacrifices for either Israel or the nations in the coming new eon:

Now Christ, coming along a Chief Priest [High Priest] of the impending good things through the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made by hands, that is, not of this creation [the Sinatic system of worship]; not even through the blood of he-goats and calves, but through His own blood, entered once for all time into the [celestial] holy places, finding [accomplishing] eonian redemption. (Hebrews 9:11-12 CV)

The Festival of Atonement is “an eonian statute” (Lev. 16:29a CV). It would be authorized only during the course of the Mosaic Eon. With the termination of the Mosaic Eon, the eonian statute of Atonement would be terminated, together with all the other eonian statutes of the Sinatic system of worship. Jesus the Messiah was to be a Chief Priest after the order of Melchizedek only for an eon. That eon refers to the last days of the Mosaic Eon:

Yahweh has sworn, and He shall not regret: You are a priest for the eon according to the order of Melchizedek. (Psalms 110:4 CV)

Under the Sinatic Covenant, only a member of the Aaronic Priesthood could serve as High Priest. Jesus does not qualify for this priesthood. His priesthood is in accord with the New Davidic Covenant and is thus associated with the Melchizedekian Priesthood which had preceded the Aaronic Priesthood. The Melchizedekian Priesthood takes us back to Abraham and the nations. It is related to Yahweh’s promise to bless the nations through Abraham’s seed.

Jesus, according to His Priesthood, enters the celestial Holy of Holies having shed His own blood as the hairy goat of the sin offering. In this manner, He accomplishes eonian redemption for His people, the Israel of Yahweh. This redemption is a redemption from the Mosaic Eon and the Sinatic Covenant belonging to that creation Yahweh began in Egypt and completed at Mount Sinai.

According to the record in Leviticus, all Israel awaited outside the tent of appointment (the Tabernacle) for the emergence of the High Priest. This emergence from the Holy of Holies, from the living presence of Yahweh Himself, after having offered up upon the mercy seat the blood of the hairy goat of the sin offering, assured the people of Yahweh’s acceptance of their sacrifice. Upon the emergence of the High Priest, the redemption of the nation is demonstrated as being guaranteed for another year,

No human at all shall come to be in the tent of appointment [the Tabernacle] when he [the High Priest] enters to make a propitiatory shelter in the holy place until his coming forth. (Leviticus 16:17a CV)

Only after the High Priest emerges alive from the Holy of Holies is redemption assured. Having accomplished his task before Yahweh on behalf of His people, the High Priest then

will support his two hands on the head of the live hairy goat, confess over it all the depravities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in all their sins and put them on the head of the hairy goat and send it away . . . to an inaccessible land, . . . into the wilderness. (Leviticus 16:21-22 CV)

As a priest according to the order of Melchizedek, Jesus ascends into the celestial holy places to intercede on behalf of His people. He is their advocate at the right hand of Yahweh. During His physical absence from the terrestrial realm, He is reigning as King and interceding as Priest. At the announcement of His Royal Approach, He calls for the gathering of the Ecclesia of Firstfruits, at which time she is revealed in glory, His glory. This results in the gathering in of the remaining harvest, thereby completing the Israel of Yahweh.

At His Royal Arrival, He emerges from the celestial holy places as both Davidic King and Melchizedekian Priest. As Priest, His emergence is the final sign to His people, the Israel of Yahweh, that their redemption is secured. This is what the writer of the Book of Hebrews alludes to when he encourages his faithful readers to continue in patience, for

thus the Christ [Messiah Jesus] also, being offered once for the bearing of the sins of many [the Israel of Yahweh, the faithful Abelites, those whose hearts are circumcised], will be seen [His emergence from the Celestial Realm as successful Chief Priest according to the order of Melchizedek] a second time [the first being His terrestrial ministry], by those awaiting Him [awaiting patiently and faithfully His Parousia], apart from sin [His sacrifice has been accepted by Yahweh], for salvation [the salvation of the Israel of Yahweh], through faith [His faithfulness and the faithfulness of His people]. (Hebrews 9:28 CV modified)

Thereupon, Jesus, acting as Chief Priest, figuratively places His two hands upon the head of the live hairy goat (representing Apostate Israel) bearing the depravities of the decadent Israelites—those hypocrites who outwardly manifest the signs of Yahweh-worship but inwardly in their uncircumcised hearts declare, There is no Elohim distinguishing between the virtuous and the vicious. This laying on of hands symbolically represents the judgment of Yahweh in 70 a.d. against Jerusalem, the Temple, and Apostate Israel, consisting of the unrepentant sons of Cain. This Cainite Israel is removed from the presence of Yahweh, figuratively being driven into an inaccessible land, outer darkness, an existence void of any special covenantal relationship to Yahweh. The members of this Cainite people are cut off from the people of Yahweh, forfeiting any right they may have had to the promised Celestial Allotment.

(Return to Table of Contents)

Tabernacles. The Festival of Tabernacles is the last festival of Israel’s agricultural year. It is also referred to as the Festival of Ingathering, since at the close of the agricultural year all the products of the year from grainfield, olive yard, vineyard, and fruit trees were gathered for storage preservation. John the Baptist, alluding to this festival, described it as Yahweh’s “gathering His grain into His barn, yet the chaff will He be burning up with unextinguished fire” (Matt. 3:12b CV).

The eschatological fulfillment of this final festival of the agricultural year occurs when Jesus, arriving in the full majesty of His Davidic Kingship (having already gathered and glorified His Ecclesia at the announcement of His Royal Approach and, through this glorification of His Ecclesia, gathering in the final harvest of the elect Israelites whose spiritual eyes had been opened by the manifestation of His glory revealed in His faithful, persevering saints), leads His People, the completed Israel of Yahweh, into their Celestial Allotment. During this same period, Jesus judges Apostate Israel (the sons of Cain) by destroying in 70 a.d. the Jerusalem below and the Temple made with hands, thus terminating the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant and the Mosaic Eon.

At that time, the Law and the Prophets were fulfilled and the restoration of Israel was completed. The time and seasons placed in the authority of the spirit had all been revealed and actualized in the eschatological fulfillment of the holy festivals of Israel. Yahweh’s faithfulness had been vindicated. He had sent the “seasons of refreshing”; He had consummated the “times of restoration of all” that which He had spoken “through the mouth of His holy prophets,” the ones commissioned during the Mosaic Eon (see Acts 3:19b-21).

At that time the old Mosaic Eon ended. The Sinatic Covenant was terminated by the Second Death. The Adamic headship and eon were superseded by the Jesuic Headship and the New Eon ushering in the New Heavens and the New Earth of Yahweh’s kingdom over all the nations and over the entire race of humanity.

From that time on, in the eyes of Yahweh and His Anointed Son, there would no longer be required any sacrifice according to the elements of the world-order (that is, according to the use of the basic elements of fire, water, earth, and air). The eon of such sacrifices to Yahweh and the gods had been consummated. The childhood of mankind was over. Mankind would now enter adolescence, eventually entering his God-ordained adulthood under the tutelage, guidance, inspiration, and exemplification of the exalted and glorified Jesus Christ, the only legitimate Son of Adam and the Only-Begotten Son of Yahweh.

(Return to Table of Contents)

The Counsel and Foreknowledge of Yahweh

The pouring out of the spirit at Pentecost is thus the eschatological fulfillment of the Festival of Pentecost. This marks the first time and season revealed by the authority given the spirit. The restoration of the kingdom of Israel has begun. Jesus the Messiah has been inaugurated as Davidic King and His Ecclesia of Firstfruits has been empowered by His spirit for the spiritual warfare to be encountered in her commission to proclaim the Gospel of the Christ.

It is this Gospel which Peter proclaims on the day of Pentecost. He addresses Israelites associated with the Southern Kingdom of Judea. He calls their attention to “Jesus, the Nazarene, a Man demonstrated to be from God [Yahweh] for you by powerful deeds and miracles and signs, which God did through Him in the midst of you, according as you yourselves are aware” (Acts 2:22 CV). Peter refers these Israelites back to the recent ministry of Jesus among them. They are aware of His powerful deeds, His miracles and signs recommending Him as Yahweh’s servant, Yahweh’s prophet, even Yahweh’s suffering servant.

He accuses these Israelites of assassinating lawlessly this man Jesus by delivering Him up to the Roman governor for a crucifixion death. In fact, it was not these Israelites who had demanded His death, but their rulers and teachers together with a crowd of mutually minded Jews instigated by these apostate shepherds. However, like Daniel, these Israelites are identified with the nation, and, even though they might not have had a direct hand in this assassination, they share in the nation’s guilt, the nation’s sin, the nation’s transgression of Yahweh’s Law. As they share in the nation’s transgression, however, they shall also share in the nation’s salvation. Here is the truth and salvation of the Gospel of Jesus the Messiah.

The Apostate Nation, acting against the disposition of the people, had lawlessly put to death an innocent man in order to protect its vested interests in the political survival of the nation under the rule of Rome. But the truth is this Man Jesus the Nazarene was given up to death according to the counsel and foreknowledge of Yahweh the Elohim of Israel, the Elohim of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; the Elohim of David. The good news, therefore, is that this counsel and foreknowledge of Yahweh had also included Yahweh’s intention of rousing this innocent Man from among the dead. Because of His innocence, this Man Jesus could not be justly left under the power of death. Yahweh’s righteousness would be vindicated.

In accord with His justice, Yahweh had roused this Man Jesus, loosing Him from the pangs of death (see Acts 2:23-24). As a result, this Man Jesus had been resurrected from among the dead, bringing salvation to all Israelites whose hearts had been circumcised. The crime and intention of the apostate rulers and teachers together with their apostate goats had been overruled and used by Yahweh to redeem His people, His sheep, from the bondage of their transgressions and the curse of the law.

Peter, interpreting Psalm 16 according to the revelatory authorization of the spirit, declares how David, being a prophet and perceiving the implication of Yahweh’s oath guaranteeing him a son to sit upon his throne, prophesied the resurrection of the Christ, the Messiah, the Anointed One of Yahweh, the promised Son. David had written,

For Thou [Yahweh] wilt not be forsaking my soul in the unseen [hades], Nor wilt Thou be giving Thy Benign One to be acquainted with decay. (Acts 2:27 CV)

Peter, with the boldness imparted by the spirit, explains to his Israelite brethren that the patriarch David had been deceased and entombed for many years, and his tomb had remained among them until that very day. Therefore, David could not have been writing about himself. He had written concerning the resurrection of the Anointed One chosen by Yahweh to sit upon the Davidic throne which had been left vacant for many years.

Peter proclaims to his fellow Israelites that this Man, Jesus the Nazarene, Who had demonstrated that He had been commissioned by Yahweh through the powerful deeds, miracles, and signs He had performed through the power of Yahweh Himself, had not been forsaken in hades (the abode of the dead) by Yahweh. The flesh of this Man Jesus had not been acquainted with decay. The Law of Death had no authority to initiate decomposition of His flesh causing putrefaction, decay, mortification. His flesh remained biologically alive. The absence of His spirit brought about the loss of soul (that is, the loss of the operation of the five senses) and the loss of consciousness (the loss of the operation of the mind), but not the decay, the mortification of the members of His body. Only The Law of Sin could inflict bodily decay, mortification.

This is the reason Paul writes,

Therefore, even as through one man the Sin entered into the world, and through the Sin the Death, and thus this death passed into all mankind, upon which all sinned . . . (Romans 5:12 my translation)

Paul labels this law which passed biologically into Adamic humanity “the law of sin and death” (Rom. 8:2b CV) in contrast to the redeeming “spirit’s law of life in Christ Jesus” (Rom. 8:2a CV) which Jesus the Messiah passes into the New Jesuic Humanity at the appropriate appointed time. In Romans 5:12, Paul uses the past (aorist) tense, “upon which [this death] all [men, with the exception of Jesus] sinned,” to indicate that all men, excluding Jesus, “sinned,” missed the mark of life at the time Adam committed his personal sin. It is not the personal sin or sins of each individual human that causes the death, the mortality, the death common to all men, the death which results in, not only the loss of soul (the operation of the five senses) and the loss of consciousness (the operation of the mind), but also the decay, the mortification, the putrefaction of the flesh, the fleshly members, organs, of the body. It is the sin of Adam that causes this death.

Thus, because this Man Jesus had not sinned personally (had not at any time been disobedient to the voice and will of Yahweh) and had not received biologically The Law of Sin and Death genetically passed through Adamic sperm to humanity, His soul had not been forsaken in death by Yahweh, and His flesh had not undergone the process of putrefaction. Yahweh had not forgotten Him, for Yahweh remembers the righteous. After three days and three nights, Yahweh, restoring to Jesus His spirit which had been voluntarily given up on the cross, rouses Jesus. The restoration of Jesus’ spirit restores His soul (the operation of His five senses) and His consciousness (the operation of His mind). Awakening, He stands Himself up, thus, exiting the realm of death, having obtained the Spirit’s Law of Life by which He would begin to reinvigorate Adamic humanity, starting with the Israel of Yahweh, the circumcised seed of Abraham, the Israelites upon whom the resurrected Jesus the Messiah had begun to pour out His spirit. Thus, Peter proclaims the Gospel of the Circumcision. For the time being, the Gospel of the Uncircumcision remains a secret yet to be revealed by the spirit.

Not only has this Man Jesus been resurrected from among the dead, He has also been exalted to the right hand of Yahweh (Acts 2:33), obtaining the promise of the holy spirit, the outpouring of which these Israelites had witnessed that very day. Once again, Yahweh had given His people a powerful sign, fulfilling the words of the prophet Joel and the words, once again, of the prophet/king David (Ps. 110:1),

Said the Lord to my Lord, “Sit at My right Till I should be placing Thine enemies for a footstool for Thy feet.” (Acts 2:34b-35 CV)

Peter explains that David had not ascended into the heavens, therefore, he must have been referring to his future elected Anointed Son, this same Man Jesus who had recently ascended to the right hand of Yahweh to be exalted to the throne of David. This resurrected and exalted Jesus had been appointed by Yahweh as the promised Davidic King. He would be reigning on the throne of David until all His enemies had been placed under His feet.

Peter then concludes his Pentecostal, spirit-inspired proclamation,

Let all the house of Israel know certainly, then, that God [Yahweh] makes Him [Jesus] Lord as well as Christ [Anointed Davidic King]—this Jesus Whom you crucified! (Acts 2:36 CV)

All the house of Israel refers to all circumcised Jews and proselytes belonging to the Southern Kingdom of Judah and dwelling within the boundaries of the Roman Empire. These Jews are to be assured that Yahweh has made this very Man Jesus (Whom they, as covenantal members of the elect nation, have crucified, and Whom Yahweh, as the faithful Elohim of the elect nation, has roused from among the dead) both Lord (Master having authority over all the servants in the household of Yahweh, see Joel’s prophecy quoted in Acts 2:21 where invoking the name of the Lord refers to Jesus the Anointed One of Yahweh, also confirming all of Joel’s prophecy to apply to that present generation) and Christ (Anointed Davidic King reigning over the entire nation of Israel). The implication, then, is that all legitimate, faithful Israelites, whose hearts are both circumcised and loyally bowed before the throne of Yahweh, are to faithfully subject themselves to the rule of this Royal King Jesus, the Anointed Davidic King appointed by Yahweh Himself.

(Return to Table of Contents)

Israel’s Response: What Should We Be Doing?

As Peter concludes this compelling exhortation, the nation with one heart is convicted, by the powerful influence of the spirit, of her guilt in delivering up to death an innocent man. As one people, with one heart, these Israelites confess the transgression of the nation as their own, like righteous Daniel,

We sin and we are depraved, we do wickedly and revolt, we withdraw from Thy instructions and Thy judgments. We do not hearken to Thy servants the prophets, who speak in Thy name to our . . . chiefs, . . . and to all the people of the land. . . . to us is shamefacedness as at this day: to each man of Judah, to the dwellers of Jerusalem, to all the people of Israel, the near and the far, in all the lands where Thou hast expelled them for their offense with which they offend Thee. (Daniel 9:5-7 CV)

These Israelites, hearing and observing the occurrences and the proclamations inspired by the spirit during this Festival of Pentecost, identify themselves with their guilty nation, the Apostate Israel, which had been placed under Yahweh’s judgment spoken by John the Baptist and this Man Jesus. They realize their dilemma. They realize their need for salvation, deliverance from their transgressions. Some, representing them, imploringly cry out,

What should we be doing, men, brethren? (Acts 2:37b CV)

These people are not to be confused with those apostate Jews of uncircumcised heart who, before Pilate, had cried out as one multitude,

Away with this one! Yet release to us Bar-Abbas. (Luke 23:18 CV)

Crucify, crucify him! (Luke 23:21 CV)

No king have we except Caesar! (John 19:15 CV)

His blood be on us and on our children! (Matthew 27:25 CV)

In these passionate cries, here is the heart and soul of Apostate Israel, the Israel according to flesh, the Israel under the wrathful judgment of Yahweh, as declared by Yahweh’s prophet, John the Baptist,

Progeny of vipers! Who intimates to you to be fleeing from the impending indignation? Produce, then, fruits worthy of repentance. . . . Now already the ax also is lying at the root of the trees [apostate Jews, children of Cain, those whose hearts are uncircumcised]. Every tree, then, which is not producing ideal fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire [the figurative fire of judgment which would come down upon Apostate Israel with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 a.d.]. (Luke 3:7b-9 CV)

Thus, the judgment of this apostate nation had already been announced. It was impending for John the Baptist, and it is imminent for this people crying out to Peter and the rest of the Apostles. Thus, Peter answers them,

Be saved from this crooked generation! (Acts 2:40b)

That present, crooked generation is soon to be delivered up for destruction. All true, authentic Israelites, those faithful children of Abraham whose hearts are circumcised, need to be saved, delivered from the Apostate Israel to which they belong, with which they have identified themselves by their conviction of guilt in relation to the death of Jesus.

Therefore, Peter details for them the specific response necessary to be saved from the crooked generation they participate in:

Repent and be baptized each of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the pardon of your sins, and you shall be obtaining the gratuity of the holy spirit. (Acts 2:38 CV)

John the Baptist had called for repentance and baptism. Many of those now before Peter and the rest of the Apostles had most likely repented under the Baptist’s ministry and had submitted to his baptism. But that repentance and baptism had been under the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant.

Now, however, on this eschatological Day of Pentecost, the New Davidic Covenant had been inaugurated, giving birth to a new nation, a New Israel of Yahweh whose sins had now been cleansed, completely pardoned by the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus upon the figurative mercy seat in the Celestial Realm by Jesus Himself as the High Priest according to the order of Melchizedek. Now repentance and baptism would be in the name of Messiah Jesus, Jesus Christ. Now repentance and baptism would identify the initiate with the death and resurrection of Jesus.

Identification with His death resulted in their sharing in His death to the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant. Identification with His resurrection resulted in their sharing in the new life of His New Davidic Covenant. In this dual identification would be their salvation from the impending, imminent judgment against their present, evil, crooked generation.

Of course, at this time, neither the Apostles nor the present initiates understand these truths. This knowledge would shortly be given to them under the teaching authority of the spirit. Now, however, submitting to this present repentance and baptism would result in the reception of the spirit in the time appointed by Yahweh. This reception would be implemented by the authorized spirit directing the affairs of the new nation, the new spiritual nation, the New Israel of Yahweh under the New Davidic King, Jesus the Messiah, the Anointed One of Yahweh, THE NATION BORN IN A DAY.

Who has heard such a thing? Who has seen such things? Can a land be born in one day? Can a nation be brought forth all at once? As soon as Zion travailed, she also brought forth her sons. (Isaiah 66:8 NASB)

Peter, then, continues his instruction:

For to you [the authentic, faithful children of Abraham, Israelites circumcised in heart] is the promise [of the spirit and of salvation] and to your children, and to all those afar [the Diaspora Jews], whosoever the Lord our God [Yahweh our Elohim and His Anointed Son] should be calling to Him. (Acts 2:39 CV)

The promise of the spirit, which is a sign of the promise of the salvation of Israel, belongs, according to the Law and the Prophets, to the elect, faithful children of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, those dwelling within the boundaries of the Land of Promise, as well as those dwelling afar off. This is an allusion to Daniel 9:7,

to each man of Judah, to the dwellers of Jerusalem, to all the people of Israel, the near [those dwelling in the land of promise] and the far, in all the lands where Thou hast expelled them . . . (CV)

Peter and the rest of the Apostles and disciples, at this time, know nothing of the Gospel of the Uncircumcision. They know nothing of Abraham as the father of the uncircumcised. These are truths still concealed at this time. These and other truths would be revealed by the spirit at their appointed times. This is another aspect of the meaning of Jesus’ declaration:

Not yours [the Apostles and disciples] is it to know times and seasons which the Father has appointed in the proper authority [the authority of the spirit]. (Acts 1:7, my translation)

Knowledge of eschatological times and seasons is not placed under the authority of men. It is placed in the figurative hands of the spirit which administers in the appropriate appointed times and seasons of the Father this knowledge to the men and women belonging to the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah. The historical development and growth of the Ecclesia during the last eschatological years of the Mosaic Eon and the Sinatic/Mosaic Covenant are to be in the figurative hands of the spirit (not the figurative hands of men still in the condition of imperfection, immaturity) directing all the vital decisions and events contributing to the fulfillment of the commission ordained by Yahweh for the Ecclesia of Jesus His Anointed Son.

At the conclusion of Peter’s exhortation, “Be saved from this crooked generation” (Acts 2:40b CV), the text records that 3,000 souls were added to the newly generated nation in that eschatological Day of Pentecost. Thus, 3,000 Israelites welcomed the proclamation of the Apostles, repenting and being baptized. Many others present that day would retain in their hearts the word proclaimed by the spirit-inspired Apostles of Jesus. These would eventually repent, turning back to Yahweh and His Anointed Son at the revelation in glory of the Ecclesia of Jesus the Messiah during the Royal Approach of the return of the great and glorious Davidic King.

Others present that day would continue to ponder the spirit-inspired proclamation, while continuing to observe and take heed to the behavior, deeds, and words of the Apostles and disciples. Eventually, they would subject themselves to the rule of Jesus the Anointed Davidic King of Yahweh their Elohim, thus contributing to the growth of the new Born-From-Above spiritual nation and the ranks of the spiritual-warriors serving in the spiritual army of the Israel of Yahweh under the spiritually mighty leadership of the Davidic Warrior-King, Jesus the Messiah.

Yet, others would reject the spirit-inspired proclamation. They would cling to the old Mosaic Covenant which had been given over to the verdict of covenantal death to be imminently carried out during the Jewish war against Rome, consummated in 70 a.d. with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. These Jews chose to identify themselves with Apostate Israel, thus forfeiting the promise which could have been theirs.

The newly generated nation continues to gather together in the vicinity of the Temple precincts. Fear comes over every Jewish soul dwelling in Jerusalem. This fear is the affect of the operation of the spirit. The Apostles continue to produce many miracles and signs which neither the rulers nor the people can legitimately deny.

The faithful community of the New Born-From-Above Israel of Yahweh holds all things in common. This community is the product of the new birth referred to by Jesus in His conversation with Nicodemus recorded in John, chapter 3. Nicodemus should have understood this subject, since it is a major theme of the prophets. But Nicodemus, like all Israel at that time, had become blind and ignorant, being deceived by the heritage of the pseudo-shepherds of the people, the relatively recent ancient fathers of the Babylonian captivity.

The pouring out of the spirit generates a new nation which begins to behave according to the spirit of the Mosaic Law as qualified by The Law of the Spirit of Life in Messiah Jesus. The faithful people participating in this new nation begin to implement the righteousness of the eschatological Year of Jubilee, at which time, according to the law, all allotted lands would be returned to their original tribes and families as allotted under Joshua. All outstanding debts would be cancelled, all Israelite slaves would be set free, and all oppression would cease. In short, every 50th year, the year of Jubilee, would begin a time of refreshing (see Leviticus, chapter 25; Acts 3:19-21):

And they were selling their acquisitions and their properties, and were distributing these things to everyone according as each one had need. (Acts 2:45 my translation)

In addition to this righteous spirit of generosity, these Born-From-Above Israelites worshiped daily in the sanctuary, persevering as one, unified, corporate body. They also shared their meals, receiving daily nourishment in the available homes open to all members of the community. This table fellowship was enjoyed with much exultation and in simplicity (purity) of heart. Surely, the spirit had been writing the law on the tablet of their hearts. As a result, they were continually and wholeheartedly praising Yahweh their Elohim, while granting (or displaying) covenantal favor toward the whole people of Israel dwelling in Jerusalem. Consequently, the new nation continued to grow numerically as Yahweh Elohim and His Anointed Son, through the spirit, added day by day in the vicinity of the Temple precincts those being saved by their repentance and submission to baptism in the name of Jesus the Messiah, Jesus Christ.